||This paper examines and analyzes development of population ageing in the Czech Republic and its likely future development and impact on long-term care costs. Long-term care is defined in detail and subdivided. Views of the European Union and the Czech Republic on the future development of long-term care are also summarized. Selected categories of expenditures are described and analyzed, including differences in spending on inpatient care and home care. The model, which tests whether and how population aging and other factors (e.g. GDP, number of beds, etc.) affect the long-term care expenses is processed at the end of the thesis.