||This dissertation thesis is a collection of three applied economics essays and a comprehensive discussion essay which includes policy recommendations resulting from the empirical essays included in this dissertation thesis, and other early work of the author. The topics analyzed were motivated by recent Czech healthcare reforms that address the recommendations raised by the OECD. Firstly, efficiency of Czech general hospitals is analyzed stressing the need for a well-functioning DRG system. Secondly, inpatient user charges which were introduced in 2008 and abolished shortly after, are analyzed as a tool which increases private participation in healthcare expenses and thus may boost healthcare efficiency both through additional resources and reduction of excess demand for healthcare services. Thirdly, personal savings, pre-retirement savings in particular, are viewed as another private source which could ease the tight public healthcare and pension budgets. It is shown that health status is a positive determinant for pre-retirement liquid savings, thus preventive health programs should be given a priority within the Czech healthcare system.