||This paper deals with the impact of the population growth on the economic performance in the Sub-Saharan countries. This region hasn`t undergone demographic transition and faces high population growth, which is caused by high fertility and relatively low life expectancy. Economic growth is not sufficient enough to deal with this pressure and many countries end up in population traps. The first part of this paper describes the evolution of the population debate since Malthus till the most recent findings and sumarizes key demographic and economics links. Second part analyses demographic development of the region with emphasis on the fertility and mortality. The third part is focused on selected domograpic and economics links. The last part examines economic development of the region on the basis of economic and demographic model and the problem of high population growth is viewed from the broader perspective of development policies.