||This thesis is aimed at the development of the Czech banking sector in the period 1990 – 2008. Both institutional framework, as well as real development of banks, is in the centre of interest. In the first chapter arguments inquiring adequacy of regulation are outlined and consequently, they are confronted with the widely implemented practice. The second part of the chapter is aimed at comparison of internationally valid rules in the 90´s with the regulatory environment in the Czech republic. Main obstructions that hampered the effective supervision during the first years of transition are stressed, potential consequences are outlined. Next chapter describe the process of the Czech banking sector restructuralization. Using some arguments of my older colleagues, I try to point out main pitfalls that significantly increased the costs of the process. The third chapter examines the development of the institutional framework after the year 2000 and shows the continual harmonization of the Czech regulation with the international standards. The last chapter is devoted to the Czech bank industry risk analysis. I try to examine what are the impacts of the recent financial crisis on the sector and how much has the slowdown of the Czech economy influenced the quality of a banking portfolio so far.