||The objective of this work is to contribute to understanding the relationship between AIDS, polygamy and the economic performance of a country or of an individual by analyzing and discussing some particular questions, and by adding some new ideas to existing theories. The first part is theoretical, largely devoted to AIDS and it's influence on the economy. The second part is a microeconomic statistical analysis, which tries to find what are the characteristics of polygamous men and women, and what is the relationship between polygamy and AIDS. It shows that polygamous households are relatively more wealthy and that the men's motivation to have more wives is probably wanting to have lots of children. Then it was found that polygamy brings higher risk of being infected by AIDS, because of polygamous husbands being more often unfaithful. The conclusion is that families having the best outlook are probably those with a polygamous and faithful husband. Such families will be wealthy and will have many children.