||The bachelor thesis compares the Catholic and Marxist understanding of private property as expressed in Rerum Novarum and the Manifesto of the Communist Party. The situation of the lowest class had demeaned during the 19th century to such a level that a large part of society had to face an existential crisis. A continually decreasing wage, alarming working conditions, the non-existence of social security and a high unemployment rate were characteristic for the 19th century. With the rise of mechanical production women and children started playing an active part in the working process, thus escalating the competition on the labour market. Karl Marx’s solution written down in the Manifesto was based on abolishing private property and allocating it under collective keeping. On the contrary, the Catholic Church insisted on maintaining private property and emphasized solidarity among social classes. The Church’s reaction to the condition of the lowest class and the growing support of communism in Europe was formulated in the first social encyclical Rerum Novarum. The thesis compares both views involved through describing the historical background and understanding of property. The rest of the work deals with a more detailed analysis of the Catholic point of view, followed by a discussion of the application and efficiency of both Marxist and Catholic theories.