||The bachelor thesis survey is dealing with one of the most significant periods in the evolution of the Czech banking system. It describes central banking and also commercial banking of the Czechoslovak Republic. In 1918 the new independent state was established and for its new currency it was necessary to establish its own bank of issue which would administer it. At that time, however, the conditions that would make the establishment of the bank possible did not exist yet. The Bank Office of the Ministry of Finance temporarily and successfully undertook its function and debates were held about the substitution of the Bank Office for the bank of issue and its form. The Czechoslovak National Bank was finally established and started to operate on 1st April 1926. After central banking it was necessary for the economy of the new state to also make commercial banking independent. Bank sector passed through validation, boom in creation of new banks, crisis, bankruptcies, concentration and consolidation. Good operating system was set up, which was able to react to the economic needs of the State and also the needs of the population. The aim is to propose total view of banking in the first years of the independent Czechoslovak state.