||The main aim of this work is to examine compound relationships between economics and philosophy of science. We seek to sketch out crucial tendencies in this sphere which took place especially during 20th century, e.g. modernism/postmodernism and positivism/postpositivism etc., and, then, to outline four potential possibilities of the future image of economics. Accordingly, this work is divided into two plans which pervade each other. In the context of the first plan’s comparison of neo-classical and post-Keynesian, in Larry Laudan’s term, research traditions in economics, we conclude, that, to the more or less extent, there is an influence of the philosophy of science on economics. Thus, we also argue that every economist, who advocates any particular theory or model, should be familiar, at least to the certain degree, with the specific world view which is always, under any research tradition, implicitly or explicitly, underlying them. In the second plan of this work, we introduce, as we have said, four “scenarios of the future development in the field of economics”. To the more or less extent arbitrarily, though arguably, we have chosen few well distinguished economists and other scientists, like Sheila C. Dow, Arjo Klamer, David Colander, D. Wade Hands, Bruce J. Caldwell, and Fritjof Capra, to represent each of these scenarios. Finally, we argue that modern evolutionary economics of complexity could be one of the most likely images of the future economics, and, consequently, characterize this specific research tradition, with its ontology methodology and also theoretical and applied parts, in the Appendix to this work.